Technologies are taking a more pronounced direction to transform the world in ways that have never been seen before. This means that the world of internet is growing. It’s not just restricted to laptops, smartphones tablets, computers, or laptops now. In the present there are a myriad of devices that are connected to the internet, creating “smart” devices.

As you are aware, IoT is also known as Internet of Things is an umbrella term that covers all connected devices that we use the internet every day.

To better understand the ways IoT will allow us to build an intelligent and connected environment (not simply devices) Let’s begin with the fundamentals.

What is IoT?

IoT is the term used to describe physical objects/things that are linked to internet to collect and share information. The number of available and future IoT devices is awe-inspiring. IoT networks provide an interconnected space that allows objects to have digital presence. They also allow devices to connect with other objects as well as people.

IoT is a revolution in the digital age with the potential to affect every aspect of life. The innovations brought by IoT are evident everywhere. Examples of IoT devices include smart cities smart wearables, smart devices for smart cities connected supply chains smart connected homes parking sensors, and more.

The expansion of IoT and its widespread use is moving at a rapid pace. The growth of IoT which we observe currently is driven by many other emerging technologies such as wireless protocols, massive quantities of data, inexpensive microprocessors, cloud-based web apps and, the most important thing is the increase of connected gadgets. It is possible to see the stats of IoT as compared to. other devices with active connections from 2010 through 2025.

IoT – Architecture

IoT Architecture comprises sensors physical data communications layers, cloud services the users IoT protocol, layers of business developers, actuators, and. In addition, due to the vast variety of internet objects that there is no standard architecture that’s universally accepted.

There are a myriad of different architectures that were developed according to the needs and requirements of different industries. However, there is an fundamental flow of processes that IoT is constructed. In this blog, we’ll look at the fundamental components that comprise IoT Architecture (i.e. the five-stage IoT Architecture).

  • Sensing Layer

The purpose of the layer that is sensing is its ability to recognize any changes to the physical state of connected devices in real-time. Thus, sensors are the primary components that make up this layer. Through sensors, one can monitor the physical surroundings, gather information, locate and identify intelligent objects, and then transfer data to cloud for analysis.

When it comes to actuators, the action takes place in the physical world. This means, for instance they can alter the temperature of the room or turn the lights on or off.

  • Communication Layer

The communication layer manages messages that are sent between IoT sensors, as well as connectivity and the routing between cloud as well as devices. Additionally the data gathered from sensors is sent directly to the cloud and the application layer of the communication layer.

Protocols such as Message Queuing Telemetry Transportation (MQTT), Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) as well as Lightweight Machine to Machine (LwM2M) allow for the connection of different devices to transfer data.

  • Cloud Layer

The cloud layer is the place where all the data collected by the devices and sensors are transferred. The purpose of this layer is to save as well as process and analyse the data. In addition, the cloud utilizes an data center to act as a central server to process data created through the devices at the edges.

  • Management Layer

In the layer of management it is possible to operate and oversee all other layers by making use from cloud tools for management.

  • Application Layer

The application layer offers a variety of applications and services, comprising of data collection, analysis visualization, data security. This is why it heavily depends on the features that are required by the users.

IoT Protocols

IoT protocol are a vital part of IoT technology. If devices aren’t able to communicate, they would be ineffective. Only IoT protocols allow IoT devices communicate through exchange of data in a meaningful , well-organized manner.

IoT protocols assure that the data from a device or sensor gets recognized by other gateways/devices/services. This is why we have compiled a listing of IoT protocols that were created for different purposes.

  • Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

The CoAP can be described as an Application Layer Protocol developed to meet the needs for the HTTP-based IoT systems. It allows devices that have limitations to connect to machine-to machine communication.

  • Data-Distribution Service (DDS)

Data-Distribution Service (DDS) is an open peer-to-peer protocol that allows to communicate. With DDS you can use small devices that connect to high network performance. It streamlines deployment, reduces the complexity and increases reliability.

  • Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT)

MQTT is a light data protocol that is suitable for IoT. MQTT is suitable for connections with low bandwidth at remote places. It utilizes a publisher-subscriber model and is a perfect choice for smaller devices that require an efficient capacity battery as well as bandwidth.

  • Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)

XMPP is a low-cost, open standard for communication. It is designed to allow immediate data exchange in near-real-time between various networks.

  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)

AMQP is a layer of software that allows interoperability between messaging middleware. With AMQP an array of systems and applications collaborate. It also allows for common messaging at the industrial level.

  • Lightweight M2M (LwM2M)

LwM2M was developed to manage remotely and provide M2M (machine to machine) services. This protocol specifies the protocol of communication between the clients and servers of LwM2M which is embedded in the IoT device.

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

TCP is the dominant protocol used for the bulk Internet connectivity. TCP splits a huge amount of data into pieces of data, while also sending and reassembling the packets in accordance with the needs to provide host-to-host communications.

  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

UDP is built on the top layer of IP and allows process-to process communication. It also increases the speed in data transfers over TCP. UDP is ideal for use in applications that require data transmission without losing data.

  • IP

Many IoT protocols utilize IPv4 as well as recent implementations make use of IPv6. IP can help route traffic across the internet and helps detect and locate devices connected to the network.

  • 6LoWPAN

6LoWPAN is one of the networking layer protocol for communication. It is most effective on devices with the power to process data but are not as powerful.

  • Zigbee

Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4 reference specification. It was designed to be advanced communication protocols to establish personal area networks that use small and low-power digital radios.

IoT Service Providers

After we’ve learned the fundamentals of IoT and its applications, it’s the time for us to look close look at the best IoT services that are available currently.

  • AWS IoT Core

AWS IoT Core provides bidirectional and secure communication between internet-connected devices (sensors or embedded microcontrollers actuators as well as smart devices) as well as AWS Cloud.

This allows you to collect information, store, and analyze the data from telemetry devices across multiple platforms. It is also possible to create apps that let your users control these devices using their smartphones or tablets.

  • Oracle IoT Cloud

Oracle IoT Cloud is a managed PaaS cloud-based service that assists make critical commercial decisions through connecting IoT devices to cloud and analyzing data in real-time.

  • Microsoft Azure IoT

Azure IoT is Microsoft’s range of cloud-based services managed by Microsoft that monitor, connect and control billions of IoT devices. Azure gives you the chance to create a variety of IoT solutions to help facilitate an era of digitalization for your company.

  • IBM Watson IoT

Watson IoT by IBM is cloud-hosted, managed solution designed to make it easy to gain value out of IoT devices. Through IBM Watson, you can connect, record data, analyze, monitor archive, manage, and track the use for your IoT device.

It provides a range of IBM Cloud services as an IBM-managed SaaS solution for collecting and analyze data from IoT assets.

  • SAP Leonardo IoT

SAP Leonardo IoT combines innovation technologies, technology, and intelligent applications to make use of IoT and provide insight to business. It allows organizations to automate the process of analysis and gain information to improve business results.

  • Siemens Mindsphere

Mindsphere is a top IoT as a Service solution from Siemens. With sophisticated analytics as well as Artificial Intelligence, Mindsphere powers IoT solutions that make use of data via connected devices. To develop more efficient business models, create high-quality products and improve all operations.

Connectivity via IoT

We live in a world of hyper-connectedness with intangible objects and individuals are linked through IoT. In addition, IoT integrated intelligent networks which are connected to items, services as well as us humans, for the purpose of distributed processing, networking and sense.

If you’re an organization looking to connect IoT with your products or services, look for experts with deep knowledge of the field to simplify your work.

By Manali

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